“Manual on Corruption Surveys: Methodological guidelines on the measurement of bribery and other corruption-related topics through sample surveys” highlights the value of producing experience-based statistical information on corruption and provides countries with methodological and operational guidelines for developing and implementing population- and business-based sample surveys to measure the prevalence of bribery and to collect other relevant information on corruption. This manual is intended as a practical tool to support evidence-based policymaking and inform the design, implementation and monitoring of policy and programmes in our fight against corruption, particularly by measuring SDG indicators 16.5.1 and 16.5.2.
“Good Practices in Public Sector Excellence to Prevent Corruption: A Lessons Learned Study in Support of the Implementation of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC)” makes a strong case that the public sector plays a key role in upholding transparency, accountability and integrity, and vice versa. Part I of this study provides a conceptual framework and formulates an operational definition of both “public sector excellence” and “prevention of corruption”. Part II draws on lessons learned from 18 good practices and provides guidance on how these might be applied to the best possible effect in other contexts, while contributing to the implementation of the UNCAC overall.
This paper explores the use of prototype road maps to identify corruption vulnerabilities, suggests corresponding warning signals, and proposes operationally useful remedial measures in each of several selected sectors and for a selected sample of cross cutting public sector functions that are particularly prone to corruption and that are critical to sector performance. Numerous technical experts have come together in this effort to develop an operationally useful approach to diagnosing and tackling corruption. The many faces of corruption is an invaluable reference for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers engaged in the business of development.
There is an imperative today to foster sustainable development. A vision for what this encapsulates is laid out in the new sustainable development agenda that aims to end poverty, promote prosperity and people’s well-being while protecting the environment by 2030. As the UN’s Development arm, UNDP has a key role to play in supporting countries to make this vision a reality—putting societies on a sustainable development pathway, managing risk and enhancing resilience, and advancing prosperity and wellbeing.
Building on its core strengths—a large country network in more than 170 countries and territories, a principal coordination role within the UN Development System, and the proven ability in supporting efforts to reduce poverty, inequality and exclusion, and protect vital ecosystems—UNDP has outlined a vision in its Strategic Plan 2014-17 focused on making the next big breakthrough in development: to help countries achieve the simultaneous eradication of poverty and significant reduction of inequalities and exclusion. While ambitious, this vision is within reach and significant inroads can be made in eradicating poverty, reducing inequalities and exclusion, and safeguarding the environment.
In line with this vision, UNDP has worked with the United Nations Development Group (UNDG) in developing a strategy for effective and coherent implementation support of the new sustainable development agenda under the acronym ‘MAPS’ (Mainstreaming, Acceleration, and Policy Support). The Mainstreaming component of MAPS aims to generate awareness amongst all relevant actors and help governments land the agenda at national and local levels; and ultimately to mainstream the agenda into their national plans, strategies and budgets. The Acceleration component focuses on helping governments accelerate progress on Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets, by providing tools that will help identify critical constraints to faster progress and focus on those development objectives that are more relevant to the country context. The Policy Support component aims to provide coordinated and pooled policy support to countries working to meet their SDG targets. In this regard, UNDP offers an integrated package of policy support services that align with its programming priorities. These services, as outlined in the prospectus, cover a wide range of areas: poverty reduction, inclusive growth and productive employment, gender equality and the empowerment of women, HIV and health, access to water and sanitation, climate change adaptation, access to sustainable energy, sustainable management of terrestrial ecosystems, oceans governance, and promotion of peaceful and inclusive societies.
Well-equipped with this integrated package of policy support services, UNDP stands ready to support country partners to effectively implement the new development agenda and make long-term economic prosperity, human and environmental well-being a reality.
To achieve the objectives of UNDP’s Strategic Plan (2014-2017) and respond to the growing demand from programming countries for policy and programme support on anti-corruption, UNDP launched its Global Anti-corruption Initiative (GAIN) (2014-2017) at the start of 2014. GAIN builds on the successes of the Global Thematic Programme on Anti-corruption for Development Effectiveness (PACDE) (2008-2013) and focuses on strengthening systems, institutions and civic engagement to better manage and deliver public resources and services. GAIN proposes an integrated and multi-disciplinary approach on anti-corruption through improved partnerships and coordination both within and outside UN system.
Today, there is growing evidence and awareness about the impact of transparency and accountability for citizens to enjoy effective service delivery. These linkages have been widely aknowledged by different international and national stakeholders addressing the role of effective insitutions in fosterting economic growth and development effectiveness. This discussion paper reflects primarily on the emerging consensus on how to integrate the components of accountability, transparency and anti-corruption into the post-2015 development framework. The discussion paper summarizes and presents the views expressed by citizens around the globe about the role of transparency, accountability and anti-corruption in shaping the future international development agenda.
9 December is the International Anti-Corruption Day, an opportunity to re-affirm our commitment to fight corruption.
The cost of corruption to society is enormous. In its 2017 report, Global Financial Integrity estimates that illicit financial flows (IFFs) in 2014 alone ranged from US$1.4 trillion to $2.5 trillion. The World Economic Forum estimates that the cost of corruption today equals more than 5 percent of global GDP ($2.6 trillion).
These figures are staggering but even more staggering is what lies behind these financial calculations – a world of dire poverty and inequality that continues to be exacerbated by the distortions in income distribution and public expenditure decisions, which are influenced by corrupt practices.
The Panama and Paradise Papers revealed the magnitude of hidden wealth from all over the world in offshore jurisdictions. According to Oxfam International, tax evasion causes Africa alone to lose $14 billion a year in fiscal revenues. These lost budgetary resources could have paid for healthcare to save the lives of 4 million children and could have employed more teachers to get every African child into school.
Similarly, the 2017 Global Corruption Barometer on the Asia-Pacific region shows that out of 22,000 people surveyed, 38 percent of the poorest said they had to pay a bribe to get access to public services. And data from 42 countries compiled by Transparency International reveal that higher levels of bribe-paying are associated with lower literacy rates among young people.
Hence, money lost to corruption is development denied to those most at risk of being left behind.
But corruption doesn’t only divert resources from development, it corrodes public trust in government institutions, undermines the rule of law, impairs the systems of checks and balances, and contributes to violence and insecurity.
Recent studies reveal that corruption and the impunity, injustice and inequality that it breeds, is one of the structural drivers of violent extremism that caused the death of nearly 30,000 people in 2015 alone, and cost nearly $90 billion to the global economy. A 2016 UNDP research points out the link between violent extremism and experiences or perceptions of injustice, corruption and systematic discrimination and political and economic marginalization. The “2015 Peace and Corruption” report also provides empirical evidence that beyond a certain threshold, there is a correlation between increasing levels of corruption and growing violence and conflict, measured by political instability, violence, terrorism, organized crime, arms trafficking, and homicide rates.
We should therefore address corruption not only as a crime and an impediment to development, but also as a direct threat to peace and stability.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development makes an explicit link between corruption and peaceful, just and inclusive societies. One of the most important commitments in that agenda is “to leave no-one behind”, not in the delivery of services, not in decision-making and not in the dispensation of justice. Achieving that ambitious goal will not be possible without tackling corruption in all its forms. That is why this year’s UNDP-UNODC anti-corruption campaign to commemorate the International Anti-Corruption Day focuses on the theme “United against corruption for development, peace and security”.
On this International Anti-corruption Day, let’s stand together firmly in the fight against corruption.